Brake as one of the most important part in a vehicle. Vehicles actually uses drum brakes as it braking system. It function is to stop the vehicle within a a possible distance or to slow down the vehicle when needed. All braking system works on same principle by converting kinetic energy of a vehicle into heat energy. A good braking system must be strong enough to stop the vehicle within a maximum distance for safety purpose of driving.

Fig above show components of braking system

At the end of this article, you’re expected to have understanding on braking system, different types of brakes and their uses.

Types of Brakes

As mentioned earlier brake as one of the important component in a vehicle due to it effectiveness of safety driving. The following types of brake explained below are classified based on purpose, construction and actuation

  • Brakes based on purpose

Primary brake or service brake: The primary brake is located in both front and rear wheels of a vehicle. It is also known as the main braking system. This type of braking system is used when a vehicle is in running condition which helps in stopping and controlling a vehicle.

Secondary brake: The secondary brake is also known as parking brake or emergency brake. It is generally operated by hand that is why it is also called hand brake. The main function of secondary brake is to keep the vehicle in stationary position when it is park.

  • Brakes based on construction

Drum brake: The drum brake is joined with the axle hub which is mounted on a back plate. The back plate is made of pressed steel sheet that is provided to support expander, anchor and brake shoes. It also avoid the drum and shoe assembly from mud and dust. The back plate absorb complete torque reaction of shoe that is why it is also known as torque plate. There are two brake shoe mounted on back plate with a friction linings. Two retractor spring are used to separate brake shoe from drum if the brake pedal is left unpressed.

Disk brake: The disk brake are made of cast iron disc mounted with bolt to the wheel hub and to a stationary housing called caliper. The caliper is connected to some unmoving part in the vehicle which is cast in two part containing a piston. Each piston and disc has a friction pad in between held in one position by retaining pins, springs plates, etc. Some arrangements in the caliper allows the fluid to enter and leave each housing. It also have another passage connected to another housing for bleeding. There are rubber sealing ring between cylinder and piston.
If the brake pedal is pressed, the hydraulically actuated piston move the friction pad to contact with the disc. These applied equal forces to the wheels. But if the pedal is released, rubber sealing ring act as return springs and push back the piston and friction pads from the disc.

Fig above show drum brake and disc brake
  • Brakes based on actuation

Mechanical brake: in this type of brake, brake force is applied mechanically. It is used where small force is needed for braking. Mechanical brake are common and used on small vehicle such as bikes, scooters etc.

Hydraulic brake: in this type of brake, brake force is applied by the used of hydraulic oil. It is used in most passenger cars. Hydraulic brake is one of the most useful and reliable braking system.

Electrical brake: This type of braking system works with the used of magnetic effect of electricity to applying brake. The piston and disk are connected to electricity. Process of applying brake is by starting the electricity which create magnetic effect between the brake pad and the disk.

Air brake: This type of brake uses air pressure to generate the braking force. This braking system is used on heavy load vehicle like trucks, bus etc.

Vacuum brakes: This type of brake is one of the strongest and powerful braking system. It uses vacuum to apply force to the brake pads. Vacuum brakes are used on heavy vehicles like heavy ships, train etc.

I hopefully believe you now have knowledge on braking system because in this article we’ve discussed on different types of braking system. If you have any question you can free ask through our comment box. Thanks for reading and please don’t forget to share this article…