Types of buildings based on occupancy is categorize by the international building code (IBC 2018) and uniform building code UBC) which can be classified due to several criteria including, construction, size, function, design, style etc. These criteria are logical since they control the design and construction of structures. In addition, each types of building represent levels of hazard and risk to building occupants and contiguous properties.

Types of Buildings Based on Occupancy

  • Residential Buildings
  • Educational Buildings
  • Industrial buildings
  • Institutional Buildings
  • Assembly Buildings
  • Storage Buildings
  • Business Buildings
  • Utility and Miscellaneous Buildings
  • Hazard Buildings
  • Mercantile Buildings

1. Residential Buildings

Residential building are purposely design for comfort which includes sleeping, resting and serve as security in some cases. Examples of residential buildings are apartment houses, hotels, dormitories, motels, fraternities and etc.

Fig 1: Residential Buildings

2. Educational Buildings

Educational buildings are building design to be conducive for learning and training at different stages. Examples of education buildings are school, college, training institute etc.

Fig 2: Educational Building

3. Industrial buildings

Industrial buildings are building built for production. In industrial buildings operation like assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, pakaging, repair and processing take place. Examples of industrial building and Factory are refineries, power paint, Gas plant, factories, aircraft manufacturing buildings etc.

Fig 3: Industrial Building

4. Institutional Buildings

Institutional buildings are constructed as care centre to an individual who is not capable of self-preservation without physical help and other purposes which intend to render help to the community. Examples of Institutional building are foster care facilities, detoxification facilities, hospitals, nursing homes, psychiatric hospitals Alcohol and drug centers, assisted living facilities, congregate care facilities, care facilities, and social rehabilitation facilities. They are also divided into sub groups which include I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4.

Fig 4: Institutional building

5. Assembly Buildings

Assembly buildings are purposely built for meeting or where people gather for certain purpose. Example of assembly buildings are, concert hall, restaurants, theaters, banquet hall, community hall, gaming centre, gymnasium libraries, church, mosque and etc. Assembly buildings are divided into group A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, A-5, and A-6 by the international building code (IBC 2018).

Fig 5: Assembly Building

6. Storage Buildings

Storage buildings are building built for the purpose of storing any materials e.g. Books, clothing, furniture, shoes, and etc. Examples of storage building are warehouse, transit sheds etc

Fig 6: Storage Building

7. Business Buildings

Business buildings are building that are perfectly design for professional transactions, and organization that involve money and exchange of goods. Examples of business building are, Ambulatory care, Laboratories, Post office, Airport, Banks, Professional service (engineers, attorneys, dentists, architects physicians etc.).

Fig 7: Business Building

8. Utility and Miscellaneous Buildings

Examples of utility and miscellaneous buildings include agricultural buildings, aircraft hangars, communication equipment structures, grain silos, tanks, and towers.

Fig 8: Utility Miscellaneous building

9. Hazardous Buildings

hazardous buildings are purposely design for storage, processing and manufacturing of highly combustible or explosive materials that constitute high physical hazard. High hazard building are divided by the international building code (IBC 2018) into H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5. Examples of hazardous materials are, fireworks, hydrogen peroxide, and cyanide.

Fig 9: Hazards Building

10. Mercantile Buildings

Mercantile buildings are built to exploit sale of merchandise which includes stock of goods, wares. Examples of mercantile buildings are drug stores, sales room, retail and wholesale stores department stores market, and etc.

Fig 10: Mercantile buildings