Building

Frame structures in building construction

Introduction

Framing in construction is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. Framing materials are usually wood, engineered wood, or structural steel. the term ‘frame’ typically refers to a rigid structure that supports a building or other built asset such as a bridge or tunnel, or parts of them.
Building framing is divided into two broad categories, Namely:
Heavy-frame construction and Light-frame construction

  1. Heavy-frame construction (heavy framing): This is when the vertical supports are few and heavy such as in timber framing , pole building framing , or steel framing.
  2. Light-frame construction (light-framing): This is when the frame supports are more numerous and smaller called light-frame construction, for example balloon, platform and light-steel framing.

Light-frame construction using standardized dimensional lumber (process timber) has become the dominant construction method in North America and Australia due to the economy of the method; use of minimal structural material allows builders to enclose a large area at minimal cost while achieving a wide variety of architectural styles.

Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions, both of bearing walls and non-bearing walls. These stick members , referred to as studs, wall plates and lintels (sometimes called headers ), serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floor platforms, which provide the lateral strength along a wall. Wiki

Types of frame structure

Different types of frame use in building construction has been discussed in articles listed below. So you’ll get to know basic understanding on types of frame use in building construction, these include:

  • Concrete frame.
  • Timber frame.
  • Steel frame.
  • Balloon framing.
  • Skeleton frame.
  • Braced frame.
  • Space frame.
  • Portal frame.
  • A-frame house.

Concrete frame

A concrete frame is one of the most common frame use in modern construction of building structures, it comprises of columns and connecting beams that forms the structural ‘skeleton’ of a building. The beams and columns is typically constructed on a concrete foundation and is used to support the building’s floors , roof, walls, cladding etc.

 

Timber frame

The timber frame are typically used for structural walls and floors constructed from small section timber studs, clad with board products. The timber frame transmits vertical and horizontal loads to the foundations.

Steel frame

Steel frame can be used to form the ‘skeleton’ frame of a building. They consist of vertical
columns and horizontal beams which are riveted, bolted or welded together in a rectilinear grid.
Steel beams are horizontal structural members that resist
loads applied laterally to their axis.
Steel columns are vertical structural members that transfer compressive loads.

Balloon frame

This is the type of frame commonly used in the late-19th century to the mid-20th century to build houses mostly in United States and Canada. The Balloon framing is a form of timber construction, It was often incorporated in the Queen Anne style and Shingle style architecture of the period.

Portal frame

This type are now commonly used to create wide-span enclosures such as; warehouses, agricultural buildings , hangars, entertainment and sport venues, factories, large retail units, and so on, where a clear space is required uninterrupted by intermediary columns. They were originally used because of their structural efficiency, meaning that large spaces could be enclosed with little use of materials and for a low cost.

Braced frame

A braced frame is a structural system commonly used in structures subject to lateral loads such as wind and seismic pressure. The members in a braced frame are generally made of structural steel, which can work effectively both in tension and compression.

Skeleton frame

This type of frame structure often used for the construction of multi-storey buildings and can be constructed from timber, concrete or structural steel components, with the building envelope formed by glazing, brick , cladding and so on hung on the outside.

Space frame

An A-frame house is a style of house characterised by a roofline with steep angles that resembles a triangle, or the letter ‘A’. The roofline usually begins at or near the foundation line, with the two sides meeting centrally at the top.

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