Building

Hazards on construction site and it Solution

Aim of this course

After going through this course, the reader should be able to:

  • Understand what is hazards in a construction site
  • Hazards equipments in a construction site and it solution

What is hazards in a construction site? 

Hazards in a construction site are equipment, tools, or things that could cause accident, danger or harm to the workers who has improperly use them.

Hazards on construction site and it Solution

  • Scaffolding
  • Fall protection
  • Excavations
  • Ladders
  • Head protection
  •  Excavations
  • Hazard communication
  • Fall protection
  •  Construction
  • Electrical

Scaffolding

Solutions:

  • Scaffold must be sound, rigid and sufficient to carry its own weight plus four times the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. It must be erected on solid footing.
    Unstable objects, such as barrels, boxes, loose bricks or concrete blocks must not be used to support scaffolds or planks.
  • Scaffold must not be erected, moved, dismantled or altered except under the supervision of a competent person.
  • Scaffold must be equipped with guardrails, midrails and toeboards.
  • Scaffold accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs or ladders that are damaged or weakened from any cause must be immediately repaired or replaced.
  • Scaffold platforms must be tightly planked with scaffold plank grade material or equivalent.
  • A “competent person” must inspect the scaffolding and, at designated intervals, reinspect it.
  • Rigging on suspension scaffolds must be inspected by a competent person before each shift and after any occurrence that could affect structural integrity to ensure that all connections are tight and that no damage to the rigging has occurred since its last use.
  • Synthetic and natural rope used in suspension scaffolding must be protected from heat-producing sources.
  • Employees must be instructed about the hazards of using diagonal braces as fall protection.
  • Scaffold can be accessed by using ladders and stairwells.
  • Scaffolds must be at least 10 feet from electric power lines at all time.

 

Fall protection 

Solutions:

  • Consider using aerial lifts or elevated platforms to provide safer elevated working surfaces;
  • Erect guardrail systems with toeboards and warning lines or install control line systems to protect workers near the edges of floors and roofs;
  • Cover floor holes; and/or
  • Use safety net systems or personal fall arrest systems (body harnesses).

Ladders

Solutions:

  • Use the correct ladder for the task.
  • Have a competent person visually inspect a ladder before use for any defects such as:
  • Structural damage, split/bent side rails, broken or missing rungs/steps/cleats and missing or damaged safety devices;
  • Grease, dirt or other contaminants that could cause slips or falls;
  • Paint or stickers (except warning labels) that could hide possible defects.
  • Make sure that ladders are long enough to safely reach the work area.
  • Mark or tag (“Do Not Use”) damaged or defective ladders for repair or replacement, or destroy them immediately.
  • Never load ladders beyond the maximum intended load or beyond the manufacturer’s rated capacity.
  • Be sure the load rating can support the weight of the user, including materials and tools.
  • Avoid using ladders with metallic components near electrical work and overhead power lines.

Cranes

Solutions:

  • Check all crane controls to insure proper operation before use.
    Inspect wire rope, chains and hook for any damage.
  • Know the weight of the load that the crane is to lift.
  • Ensure that the load does not exceed the crane’s rated capacity.
  • Raise the load a few inches to verify balance and the effectiveness of the brake system.
  • Check all rigging prior to use; do not wrap hoist ropes or chains around the load.
  • Fully extend outriggers.
  • Do not move a load over workers.
  • Barricade accessible areas within the crane’s swing radius.
  • Watch for overhead electrical distribution and transmission lines and maintain a safe working clearance of at least 10 feet from energized electrical lines.

Hazard Communication

Solutions:

  • Maintain a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each chemical in the facility.
  • Make this information accessible to employees at all times in a language or formats that are clearly understood by all affected personnel.
  • Train employees on how to read and use the MSDS.
  • Follow manufacturer’s MSDS instructions for handling hazardous chemicals.
  • Train employees about the risks of each hazardous chemical being used.
  • Provide spill clean-up kits in areas where chemicals are stored.
  • Have a written spill control plan.
  • Train employees to clean up spills, protect themselves and properly dispose of used materials.
  • Provide proper personal protective equipment and enforce its use.
  • Store chemicals safely and securely.

Forklifts

Solutions:

  • Train and certify all operators to ensure that they operate forklifts safely.
  • Do not allow any employee under 18 years old to operate a forklift.
  • Properly maintain haulage equipment, including tires.
  • Do not modify or make attachments that affect the capacity and safe operation of the forklift without written approval from the forklift’s manufacturer.
  • Examine forklift truck for defects before using.
  • Follow safe operating procedures for picking up, moving, putting down and stacking loads.
  • Drive safely–never exceed 5 mph and slow down in congested or slippery surface areas.
  • Prohibit stunt driving and horseplay.
  • Do not handle loads that are heavier than the capacity of the industrial truck.
  • Remove unsafe or defective forklift trucks from service.
  • Operators shall always wear seatbelts.
  • Avoid traveling with elevated loads.
  • Assure that rollover protective structure is in place.
  • Make certain that the reverse signal alarm is operational and audible above the surrounding noise level.

Head Protection

Solution:

  • Be sure that workers wear hard hats where there is a potential for objects falling from above, bumps to their heads from fixed objects, or accidental head contact with electrical hazards.

Electrical Safety

  • Work on new and existing energized (hot) electrical circuits is prohibited until all power is shut off and grounds are attached.
    An effective Lockout/Tagout system is in place.
  • Frayed, damaged or worn electrical cords or cables are promptly replaced.
  • All extension cords have grounding prongs.
  • Protect flexible cords and cables from damage. Sharp corners and projections should be avoided.
  • Use extension cord sets used with portable electric tools and appliances that are the three-wire type and designed for hard or extra-hard service. (Look for some of the following letters imprinted on the casing: S, ST, SO, STO.)
  • All electrical tools and equipment are maintained in safe condition and checked regularly for defects and taken out of service if a defect is found.
  • Do not bypass any protective system or device designed to protect employees from contact with electrical energy.
  • Overhead electrical power lines are located and identified.
  • Ensure that ladders, scaffolds, equipment or materials never come within 10 feet of electrical power lines.
  • All electrical tools must be properly grounded unless they are of the double insulated type.
  • Multiple plug adapters are prohibited.

Eye and Face Protection

  • Safety glasses or face shields are worn anytime work operations can cause foreign objects getting into the eye such as during welding, cutting, grinding, nailing (or when working with concrete and/or harmful chemicals or when exposed to flying particles).
  • Eye and face protectors are selected based on anticipated hazards.
  • Safety glasses or face shields are worn when exposed to any electrical hazards including work on energized electrical systems.

Foot Protection

  • Construction workers should wear work shoes or boots with slip-resistant and puncture-resistant soles.
  • Safety-toed footwear is worn to prevent crushed toes when working around heavy equipment or falling objects.

Hand Protection

  • Gloves should fit snugly.
  • Workers wear the right gloves for the job (for example, heavy-duty rubber gloves for concrete work, welding gloves for welding, insulated gloves and sleeves when exposed to electrical hazards).

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