The primary function of walls in buildings are to support roofs,
floors and ceilings and to enclose a space as part of the building envelope along with a roof to give buildings form. Walls are one of the important part in buildings to provide shelter and serve as security. In addition, the wall may house various types of utilities such as electrical wiring or plumbing.
So Wall is a structure defining an exact area and providing safety & shelter. Wall construction falls into two basic categories: framed walls or mass-walls.
- framed walls: the load is transferred to the foundation through posts, columns or studs. Framed walls most often have three or more separate components: the structural elements (such as 2×4 studs in a house wall),
insulation, and finish elements or surfaces (such as drywall or panelling).
- Mass-walls: these are of a solid material including
masonry, concrete including slipform stonemasonry, log building, cordwood construction, adobe, rammed earth, cob,
earthbag construction, bottles, tin cans, straw-bale construction, and ice.
There are three basic methods walls control water intrusion, they are: moisture storage, drained cladding, or face-sealed cladding.
1. Moisture storage: This is typically of stone and brick, use in mass-wall buildings where moisture is absorbed and released by the walls of the structure itself.
2. Drained cladding: The drained cladding is also known as screened walls in which the acknowledges moisture will penetrate the cladding so a moisture barrier such as
housewrap or felt paper inside the cladding provides a second line of defense and sometimes a drainage plane or
air gap allows a path for the moisture to drain down through and exit the wall. Sometimes ventilation is provided in addition to the drainage plane such as in rainscreen construction.
3. Face-sealed: This is also called barrier wall or perfect barrier, cladding relies on maintaining a leak-free surface of the cladding. Examples of face sealed cladding are the early
exterior insulation finishing systems, structural glazing, metal clad panels, and corrugated metal.
Building walls frequently become works of art, externally and internally, such as when featuring mosaic work or when
murals are painted on them; or as design foci when they exhibit textures or painted finishes for effect. Wiki
Types of wall used in building construction
Load Bearing Walls
Load bearing wall is known as a structural element that carries the weight of a house from the roof and upper floors, all the way to the foundation. It supports structural members like beams(sturdy pieces of wood or metal), slab and walls on above floors. The load bearing wall are directly above the beam, It is designed to carry the vertical load. In addition, if a wall doesn’t have any walls, posts or other supports directly above it, it is more likely to be a load-bearing wall. Load bearing walls also carry their own weight. This wall is typically over one another on each floor. Load bearing walls can be used as interior or exterior wall.
Types of load bearing walls
- Precast Concrete Wall
- Retaining Wall
- Masonry Wall
- Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls
- Engineering Brick Wall
- Stone Wall
Non-Load Bearing Walls
This type wall doesn’t help the structure to stand up and holds up only itself is known as a non-load bearing wall. It doesn’t support floor and roof loads above. It is a framed structure and most time, They are interior walls whose purpose is to divide the structure into rooms. They are built lighter. One can remove any non-load bearing walls without endangering the safety of the building. Non-load bearing walls can be identified by the joists and rafters. They are not responsible for gravitational support for the property. It is cost effective. This wall is referred to as “curtain wall”.
Types of Non-Load Bearing Walls
- Hollow Concrete Block
- Facade Bricks
- Hollow Bricks
- Brick Walls
The cavity wall consists of two separate withes which are made of masonry. The two walls are known as internal leaf and external leaf, it is also known as a hollow wall. Cavity wall reduce their weights on the foundation and act as good insulation. It gives better thermal insulation than any other solid wall because space is full of air and reduces heat transmission. They have a heat flow rate that is 50 percent that of a solid wall. It is economically cheaper than other solid walls. It is fire resistant and also helps to keep out from noise.
It is also known as framed wall, designed to resist lateral forces. This lateral force comes from exterior walls, floor, and roofs to ground foundation. The usage of the shear wall is important, especially in large and high-rise buildings. Shear walls are typically constructed from materials like concrete or masonry. It has an excellent structural system to resist earthquake. It provides stiffness in the direction. The construction and implementation are easy in shear walls. It is located symmetrically to reduce ill effects of a twist. Shear wall doesn’t exhibit any stability problem.
This type of wall is used in separation spaces from buildings. It can be solid, constructed from brick or stone. It is a framed construction. The partition wall is secured to the floor, ceiling, and walls. It is enough strong to carry its own load. It resists impact. It is stable and strong to support wall fixtures. Partition wall works like a sound barrier and it is fire resistant.
This type of wall is non-bearing wall between columns or pillars that are supported. The panel is installed with both nails and adhesive. The paneling design choices include rustic, boards, frame. Paneling can be from hardwoods or inexpensive pine. One should paint the space before installing panel walls.
Veneer walls are made of brick or stone. The most famous veneered wall is made of brick. The wall is only one wythe thick. It became the norm when building codes began to require insulation in the interior walls. It is light weighted. The construction takes less time to complete in veneered walls.
It is a wall which masonry facing and backing are so bonded as to exert common action under load. It creates a streamlined look. The faced wall is easy to install.
Materials Used In Wall Construction
Different types of materials use in constructions of wall are mainly for security, supports or serve as decoration to most buildings. In this article you’ll get to know different materials use for wall construction.
Concrete block is one of the most use material for wall construction. They are very modern and sophisticated material because it is artificially produced with sand and cement. in spite of the common belief that concrete blocks leave a very sterile impression, this material plays extraordinary well with the Spanish architectural style. Concrete walls are usually designed to be set on a compacted gravel base and remain strong even when you apply pressure.
Important of concrete block in wall construction
- A concrete wall can often last up to a whole century.
- Concrete blocks come in different shapes and sizes, it can be used to create curves.
- Concrete block walls are usually much easier to install.
- Concrete blocks has low maintenance; the blocks can be clean once in a year.
- Concrete walls are non-toxic and they do not emit allergens or dangerous chemicals.
Stone Veneer also known as natural stone is a high protective material that can be used as a decorative covering for vertical walls and surfaces. That means, the veneer itself is a purely aesthetic element and it needs a solid core to even work as a wall.
Important of Stone veneer in wall construction
- The natural stone is a powerhouse build material. Stone structures are capable of withstanding centuries of abuse, and your retaining wall will be capable as well.
- Natural stone doesn’t fade, and crack.
- Natural stone has a very beautiful aesthetics and texture. Beautiful patterns, unique shapes or even the lichen growing on the rock are very hard to be emulated by other materials.
- Stone veneer is reasonably light, it makes building the wall much easier.
- The solid core can be built in literally any thickness or height.
Poured or cast in place concrete is a very popular architectural option produced by pouring the concrete directly into the forms on the site. Since it looks very clean-cut and sterile, poured concrete plays along the best with the modern-looking surrounding and it ability to support the soil load depends on weather conditions and other elements.
Important of Poured concrete
- Poured concrete is more stronger than block wall
- Concrete can be poured in any form; different shapes can be design.
- The final appearance is attractive, i.e it can also serve as decoration to building
- Poured concrete makes incorporating other architectural elements like, for instance, drainage systems very easy.
Brick is one of the most popular building materials, and it is very easy to see the appeal. bricks feature a very warm and inviting look. It is mostly used in traditional homes and landscapes. But, the look can push some building material only so far. Bricks have a lot of other good things working for them as well.
Important of brick in wall construction
- Maintainance of bricks are low
- Bricks are made of fine soil
- Bricks are made out of some of the most abundant and eco-friendliest materials in the world
- Bricks are good resistance of fire and weather
- Bricks don’t need any damp proofing materials
Wood materials have been with us for long because it natural, wood lend the space they occupy a sense of nostalgia and warmth and they are made out of widely accessible materials.
Important of wood in wall construction
- They are install easily
- They can be easily dismantle
- They are easy to maintain
- They are very lightweight material
Boulder walls are one of the oldest and the best lasting wall that exist. They are widely available and ready to use even without any additional refining. At the same time, they retain most of the positive aspects of the furnished stones and can last you a century.
Importance of boulders in wall construction
- Boulders colors and sizes are extremely easy to obtain at a very affordable price
- Boulders are a great match for any kind of rustic home or landscaping design.
This is also one of the oldest method of building the walls. The name Gabion is derived from the Italian world gabbia which stand for cage. So Gabion are simple cages made out of wire or steel rods and usually filled with rock or rubble. Although they had the widest application in the times of war (during the Civil War, gabion walls were built to protect the soldiers), their ability to play along with virtually any kind of recycled material (e.g. crushed concrete) earned them a very loyal following amongst the modern eco-aware audience.
Wood and timber are not considered to be the same building material. Well, at least not quite. The word timber is used to describe any stage of wood after the tree has been cut. The so-called “finished” timber is the wood that’s been processed and cut in various sizes, but still column in nature. As we can see, that makes timber a very different building material from the planks we mentioned above.
Natural stone walls are very similar to boulder walls. The only obvious alteration is that natural stone pieces are much smaller. But, that makes all the difference in the world. Natural stone, therefore, retains all the good qualities of other types of stone (tradition, strength, durability), while allowing you much more design options than, for instance, boulder pieces.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed of skeletal fragments left over by the marine organisms (mostly corals and mollusks). Its primary materials are calcite and aragonite. Although that may probably make you think limestone is more fragile than traditional rock, you have to remember that some of the most long-lasting structures in the world like Taj Mahal and Great Pyramids of Giza were made out of this material.
plastic mainly used as polymers in the construction industry, they form a relatively small percentage of the building materials use in the world.
Glass has become an exceedingly important material in the urban scape. Not just corporate offices, but even modern homes are using glass as a façade alternative.
Aluminum and steel alloys form a big part of the construction industry across the globe and are in fact the framework for big structures.