Building

Different Types of Heavy Equipments Used during Construction

 

Introduction

Heavy equipment are use for variety of large projects which make construction easier and faster. These equipment used to transport heavy load, dig holes, demolish and etc. Heavy equipment are selected based on the size of work and economy of the project.

Fig above shows different types of heavy equipment used during construction

Types of Heavy Equipment and their uses

The following listed below are different types of heavy equipment used in construction site. They are:

  • Compactors
  • Excavator
  • Backhoe
  • Bulldozer
  • Dragline Excavator
  • Wheel Tractor Scrapers
  • Trenchers
  • Graders
  • Tower Cranes
  • Pile Driving
  • Pile Boring
  • Paver
  • Telehandler
  • Dump Trucks
  • Loaders
  • Feller Buncher

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Compactors

Compactors or rollers are common in road construction. They are used to compact the materials on earth surface. Different types of compactors are designed for specific purposes, like the sheep-foot rollers are used for deep compartment, pneumatic tyred rollers are widely used for compacting asphalt layer, fine gained soils and etc. While, smooth wheel rollers are used for compacting shallow layers of soil.

Fig 1: Compactors

Excavator

Excavator is widely used during construction for making hollow, cutting trees, scooping, digging, heavy lifting, demolition, river dredging, and etc. Excavators are made of cabinet and long arm. The cabinet contains the machine operator and the long arm provide digging bucket. The arrangement of the cabin rotates up to 360 which eases the operation.

Fig 2: Excavator

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Backhoe

Backhoe is one of the most widely used equipment which serve multiple function in construction site. It is suitable for excavating trenches below the machine level, it is also used for uploading and lifting of materials. The hoe of the backhoe is located at the backside of the vehicle while loading bucket is provided in the front.

Fig 3: Backhoe

Bulldozer

Bulldozer is another types of heavy equipment used for to remove topsoil layer up to particular depth. Bulldozer is best known for soil excavation. The operation is done by the sharp wide metal plate located at the front of the bulldozer. Furthermore, bulldozer is widely used for removal of weak soil, rock strata, lifting of soil etc.

Fig 4: Bulldozer

Dragline Excavator

Dragline excavator is an heavy equipment suitable for larger depth excavations. It consists of digging bucket and long length boom. The digging bucket is suspended from the top of the boom using cable. Dragline excavators are used for excavations under water, construction of ports, sediment removal in water body and etc.

Fig 5: Dragline Excavator

Wheel Tractor Scrapers

Wheel tractor scrapers is another heavy equipment used to reduce ground surface and flatten soil surface. It works by the process of scrapping the ground till the required level obtained. It contains wheeled tractor located at the front part of the vehicle and rear part consists of scrapers such as horizontal blades, soil collecting hopper and conveyor belt. For it to work, the front blade is opportune to be lowered unto the ground which will start digging the soil if the vehicle moves. Excavated soil is collected by the hopper through conveyor belt. If the hopper full, the rear part is raised from the ground which allows the soil to be poured to soil dump yard.

Fig 6: Wheel Tractor Scrapers

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Trenchers

Trencher is another heavy equipment used for excavating soil. It is known as trenching machine which are available in two types namely, wheeled and chain trenches. The wheeled trenches consists metal wheel with some digging tooth around it. It is suitable to excavate hard soil layer. While the chain trenches contains of a fixed long arm around which digging chain is provided. These trenches are generally used for pipeline laying, cable laying, drainage purposes etc.

Fig 7: Trenchers

Graders

Graders are suitable equipment for road construction. It is used to level the soil surface and used to remove unnecessary soil layer from the ground. Graders are also called motor grader. It consists of horizontal blades which is located between the front and the rear wheels. The blades are lowered to the ground to tough the ground surface. The operating cabin is mounted on top of rear axle arrangement. In addition. Grader are also used to flatten the surface of soil before pouring asphalt layer and it is used to clear slow and dirt form the road.

Fig 8: Graders

Tower Cranes

Tower cranes are heavy equipment used to lift heavy materials such as pre-stressed concrete blocks, steel trusses, frame and etc. in constructions of tall structure. It easily transport heavy equipment or goods to a desired elevation. Tower cranes consists of jib which serve a the operating arm of the crane, counter jib is other arm of the crane which carries the counter weight on rear side, mast which is the vertical supporting tower, and the operator cabin from which the cranes are operated.

Fig 9: Tower cranes

Pile Driving

Pile driving is another heavy equipment used in construction site for pile foundation construction. This equipment lifts the pile and holds it in proper position and drives into the ground up to required depth.

Fig 10: Pile driving

Pile Boring

Pile boring is another heavy equipment purposely design for holes boring in construction site to allows the installation of precast piles.

Fig 11: Pile boring

Paver

Paver is another equipment which is used in road construction as pavement laying equipment. It is also known as asphalt paver which consists of feeding bucket, dump truck, paver distributor and etc. The function of the dump truck is to load the asphalt continuously while the paver distributor, dispense the asphalt evenly on the road surface with slight compaction. Well, a roller is used for perfect compaction.

Fig 12: Paver

Telehandler

Telehandler is another heavy equipment used during construction. It is used for lifting heavy materials to a desired elevation. Telehandler comes with a long telescopic boom which can lowered or raised, and can move forward and backward. Some other instruments like forklifts, cabin, bucket, lifting jibs and etc. can also be attached to the telescopic boom at the end for a particular purpose.

Fig 13: Telehandler

Dump Trucks

Dump trucks are carrying equipment used in construction site. It is used to transport materials in large quantity from one site to another or carries loads to dump yard. In big construction site, off-road dump tracks are used. It consists large wheels and large space which enables it to carry large quantity of materials.

Fig 14: Dump Truck

Loaders

Loaders are widely used in construction site. It operation are made for soil excavation, demolition waste, raw materials and etc. It is used to load material onto dumper or trucks. A loader consists of large sized bucket located at the front with shorter moving arm. The loader comes in two types which includes crawled or tracked loader. The crawled loader are used in site where wheeled vehicles cannot reach. While wheeled are used in site which is on tracked.

Fig 15: Loaders

Feller Buncher

Feller bunchers are heavy equipment with a specific purpose in the construction field. It is used for cutting large trees around the construction areas. Feller buncher operation is special because it cut the tree and grab it without falling. It also gathers all the cut down trees at one place.

Fig 16: Feller buncher

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