The primary function of walls in buildings are to support roofs,
floors and ceilings and to enclose a space as part of the building envelope along with a roof to give buildings form. Walls are one of the important part in buildings to provide shelter and serve as security. In addition, the wall may house various types of utilities such as electrical wiring or plumbing.
So Wall is a structure defining an exact area and providing safety & shelter. Wall construction falls into two basic categories: framed walls or mass-walls.
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Types of wall used in building construction
1. Load Bearing Walls: Load bearing wall is known as a structural element that carries the weight of a house from the roof and upper floors, all the way to the foundation. It supports structural members like beams(sturdy pieces of wood or metal), slab and walls on above floors. The load bearing wall are directly above the beam, It is designed to carry the vertical load. In addition, if a wall doesn’t have any walls, posts or other supports directly above it, it is more likely to be a load-bearing wall. Load bearing walls also carry their own weight. This wall is typically over one another on each floor. Load bearing walls can be used as interior or exterior wall.
Types of load bearing walls
- Precast Concrete Wall
- Retaining Wall
- Masonry Wall
- Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls
- Engineering Brick Wall
- Stone Wall
2. Non-Load Bearing Walls: This type wall doesn’t help the structure to stand up and holds up only itself is known as a non-load bearing wall. It doesn’t support floor and roof loads above. It is a framed structure and most time, They are interior walls whose purpose is to divide the structure into rooms. They are built lighter. One can remove any non-load bearing walls without endangering the safety of the building. Non-load bearing walls can be identified by the joists and rafters. They are not responsible for gravitational support for the property. It is cost effective. This wall is referred to as “curtain wall”.
Types of Non-Load Bearing Walls
- Hollow Concrete Block
- Facade Bricks
- Hollow Bricks
- Brick Walls
3. Cavity Walls: The cavity wall consists of two separate withes which are made of masonry. The two walls are known as internal leaf and external leaf, it is also known as a hollow wall. Cavity wall reduce their weights on the foundation and act as good insulation. It gives better thermal insulation than any other solid wall because space is full of air and reduces heat transmission. They have a heat flow rate that is 50 percent that of a solid wall. It is economically cheaper than other solid walls. It is fire resistant and also helps to keep out from noise.
4. Shear Walls: It is also known as framed wall, designed to resist lateral forces. This lateral force comes from exterior walls, floor, and roofs to ground foundation. The usage of the shear wall is important, especially in large and high-rise buildings. Shear walls are typically constructed from materials like concrete or masonry. It has an excellent structural system to resist earthquake. It provides stiffness in the direction. The construction and implementation are easy in shear walls. It is located symmetrically to reduce ill effects of a twist. Shear wall doesn’t exhibit any stability problem.
5. Partition Walls: This type of wall is used in separation spaces from buildings. It can be solid, constructed from brick or stone. It is a framed construction. The partition wall is secured to the floor, ceiling, and walls. It is enough strong to carry its own load. It resists impact. It is stable and strong to support wall fixtures. Partition wall works like a sound barrier and it is fire resistant.
6. Panel Walls: This type of wall is non-bearing wall between columns or pillars that are supported. The panel is installed with both nails and adhesive. The paneling design choices include rustic, boards, frame. Paneling can be from hardwoods or inexpensive pine. One should paint the space before installing panel walls.
7. Veneered Walls: Veneer walls are made of brick or stone. The most famous veneered wall is made of brick. The wall is only one wythe thick. It became the norm when building codes began to require insulation in the interior walls. It is light weighted. The construction takes less time to complete in veneered walls.
8. Faced Walls: It is a wall which masonry facing and backing are so bonded as to exert common action under load. It creates a streamlined look. The faced wall is easy to install.