Wood finishing is final operation carryout in woodwork construction. It is the process of protecting or refining a wooden surfaces. it also gives wood surfaces desirable characteristics, in such that, it improve appearance, appealing, attractive and increase resistance to moisture and other environmental agents. Finishing provides ability to low-value woods with better appearance than the expensive ones. It also make the wood easier to clean and keep them free from microorganisms. Finishing needs to be plan in order to achieve environmental requirements and to ensure the finished piece look attractive.
Finishing should be perfectly plan, in such that, attention is given to the design and strength of wooden joints to ensure they are perfectly joined and crack the overlying finish. Planning of wood finishing also involves the properties of the wood that will undergo finishing. These can affect the appearance and performance of finishes.
Sanding is an operation that needs to be carried out before finishing. The process is done to remove defects from the wood surfaces that will affect the appearance of the finishes that are applied to the wood. These defects could be natural or artificial. The artificial defects may include Small glue spots, cutter marks and burns, scratches and signs, raised grain etc.
Sanding operation is done either by hand, typically by the use of power sander or sanding block, planing or scraping.
The natural colour of the wood can be remove by bleaching and be stained to the desired colour. It is also advisable to know how the finishing process influences the end result. The construction should be done carefully to avoid scratches, dents and soiling with dirt. Some wood naturally has organic and inorganic stain. such stains enhance the appearance of the wood. However, this stains can be removed from the wood by bleaching process. Bleaching is also done to reduce the difference in colour. Such bleaching make it easier to achieve a uniformly coloured wood when the wood is coloured with pigmented stains and dyes.
After the wood surface is stained, then the last operation will be done. Finishes consists of several costs of Wax, Shellac, drying oil, lacquer, varnish, or paint. The surface may be polished using steel wool, pumice, rotten stone or other materials, depending on the shine desired.